Differential gear, in automotive mechanics, gear arrangement that allows power from the engine to be transmitted to a couple of traveling wheels, dividing the force equally between them but permitting them to follow paths of different lengths, as when turning a corner or traversing an uneven road. On a straight street the tires rotate at the same speed; when turning a part the outside wheel provides farther to proceed and will turn faster than the inner steering wheel if unrestrained.
The components of the Ever-Power differential are shown in the Differential Gear Figure. The energy from the tranny is delivered to the bevel ring gear by the drive-shaft pinion, both of which are kept in bearings in the rear-axle casing. The case is an open boxlike structure that is bolted to the band gear possesses bearings to support a couple of pairs of diametrically reverse differential bevel pinions. Each wheel axle is attached to a differential side gear, which meshes with the differential pinions. On a directly road the tires and the medial side gears rotate at the same speed, there is no relative motion between the differential side gears and pinions, and they all rotate as a device with the case and band gear. If the vehicle turns to the left, the right-hand steering wheel will be required to rotate faster than the left-hand wheel, and the side gears and the pinions will rotate in accordance with one another. The ring equipment rotates at a acceleration that is add up to the mean velocity of the still left and right wheels. If the wheels are jacked up with the transmitting in neutral and one of the wheels is turned, the opposite wheel will turn in the opposite path at the same quickness.
The torque (turning second) transmitted to the two wheels with the Ever-Power differential may be the same. Consequently, if one steering wheel slips, as in ice or mud, the torque to the other steering wheel is reduced. This disadvantage could be overcome somewhat by the use of a limited-slip differential. In one version a clutch connects among the axles and the ring gear. When one wheel encounters low traction, its inclination to spin is definitely resisted by the clutch, hence providing greater torque for the other wheel.
A differential in its most basic form comprises two halves of an axle with a gear on each end, linked together by a third gear creating three sides of a sq .. This is usually supplemented by a fourth gear for added power, completing the square.